Circuit Breaker Ratings – A Primer for Protection Engineers
This paper explains the asymmetrical short-circuit interrupting current rating for high-voltage circuit breakers. The paper teaches how the decaying dc component in the asymmetrical fault current affects the breaker, and it explains how the X/R ratio and the relay operating time affect the asymmetrical current breaker rating. The paper briefly introduces, and illustrates with field cases, several ultra-high-speed protection principles that can operate in just a few milliseconds. The paper then explains how to derate a breaker for the relay operating time that is shorter than the standard reference value of 0.5 cycle. The paper calculates the “rating loss” due to fast tripping and suggests that applying customary margins when selecting breakers may be sufficient to mitigate the effect of ultra-high-speed relays without the need to replace breakers.